XX Chapter 0101: Summary
The three types of unique network hosts identifiers recognized by TCP/IP (MAC address, IP address and fully-qualified domain names or FQDN) were explained. Then we discussed the different classes of IP addresses for different sized networks (Class A, B, and C) and the special purpose Class D network address used for activities such as multicasting. We learned about the two common name resolution services for TCP/IP that maps host names to IP Addresses (and back again). Wins for legacy Windows networks, and DNS for most UNIX based and newer Windows networks. Two files that are considered during name resolution are HOSTS (for traditional TCP/IP name resolution) and LMHOSTS (for name resolution on Windows networks).
Routing can be static or dynamic. Dynamic is less work for the administrator, while Static routing allows the administrator to have explicit control over the routes of packets through the network. The use of the default gateways in routing, to which packets destined for networks other than the local LAN are forwarded, was discussed.
Services provided by the TCP/IP protocol suite are standard functions available to network users, which typically run as programs on network services, Each service is attached to a port number known by both the server and clients who wish to connect to it. For example, the FTP service uses port 21. Other useful services implemented as TCP.IP protocols are Telnet, SMTP, HTTP, POP3, IMAP4, NNTP and NTP.
The DHCP and BOOTP protocols can be used to enable a server to hand out TCP/IP configuration information to a client when requested. Information distributed by these servers can include client IP addresses, name server address and routing information such as the default gateway and subnet mask.
TCP/IP includes a variety of utilities for configuration and troubleshooting, such as ARP, IPconfig, NBTstat, Netstat, Nslookup, Ping, Tracert, and Winipcfg. Be familiar with the functionality, command line switches, and typical output of each. Also know each of these utilities as appropriate for troubleshooting.
SNMP and RMON are two network protocols often used in the management of devices on a TCP/IP network.
New development in TCP/IP include an increased use of Network Address Translation (NAT) in the real world, IP Proxy services in use to provide NAT, increase network efficiency and improve security, Classes Inter Domain Routing (CIDR), Ipv6 and Quality of Service (QoS).
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