XII Network Monitoring Protocols
Weve seen TCP/IP utilities and protocols for configuring the network, and troubleshooting problems when they occur. There are also generic (not TCP/IP specific) utilities for monitoring the network, collecting statistics and watching for potential network problems. Typically, these utilities are provided by third-party enterprise utility software vendors, or sometimes network hardware vendors, rather than being included in the operating system as configuration and troubleshooting utilities are.
These third-party utilities primarily use the SNMP and RMON protocols to transmit status requests from a management server to network devices, and replies back from the devices to the management server.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) was the first protocol designed to communicate between a network management server and devices on a network. Programs using SNMP send out protocol data units (PDUs) to devices. Each SNMP-compliant device runs an agent, which stores data about itself in a Management Information Base (MIB), and responds to queries from management servers using the information in the MIB. An SNMP management program can set up thresholds for various counters that are kept by an agent, and when a threshold is exceeded, the agent issues a trap that is communicated back to the management program.
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