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II TCP/IP Addressing Overview
TCP/IP network addressing has three
building blocks. In effect, this means that any given network
device has three unique identifiers, at successively higher
levels of abstraction and user-friendliness. They
- The physical address is the
MAC (Media Access Control) address assigned to
the NIC at manufacturing time. This is usually written in hex,
for example 00-aa-00-62-c6-09. This is bound or given
a translation to the IP address that is assigned to the
- The IP address is a 32 bit
binary number that indicates the network number and the unique client
or host number on that network. It is typically written out as a series
of 4 numbers, separated by periods, such as 18.104.22.168. This
address is NOT fixed in the device when it is manufactured.
Rather, it can be assigned (and re-assigned) by the network admin, or
even by automated software programs on the network.
These addresses are easier to remember than physical addresses,
because the addresses of all hosts on a LAN tend to start with the same
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) maps physical addresses to logical
- 3. The host name or fully
qualified domain name (FQDN), which is a human name given
to the computer or device without having to remember
something like 00001010000000000000000000000010 (10.0.0.2).
(Domain names will be discussed later in this chapter) Domain names
like www.CertiGuide.com are obviously the easiest to remember
of all the identifier schemes. The Domain Naming System (DNS)
maps domain names to logical IP addresses. If Base
2 math makes a much sense to you as a foreign language you do not understand,
refer to Appendix B.
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