FM and MFM
Frequency Modulation (FM) was used as an encoding scheme for the 8-inch floppy on the earliest hard drives and floppy drives. The challenge with FM was it needed to use space for a timing signal. Enter Modified Frequency Modulation (MFM) This encoding doubled the capacity for floppy drives creating what is commonly referred to as Double Density (DD) disks. MFM is still the standard used for floppy drives today.
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