ADC & DAC
The process of converting analog sounds to digital signals uses some devices you're already familiar with.
Signals that are brought into the sound card, from say a microphone, are converted from analog to digital by logic circuit called an Analog to Digital Converter, or ADC.
The digital signal is then sent to the digital signal processor on the sound card. From there the signal is either sent to the CPU to be stored, perhaps on the hard disk, or it is redirected to a Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) which sends the resulting analog signal out to a set of speakers.
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