OSI Reference Model and Networking Protocols and Technologies
As the result of network development, there have been many variants in the construction of networks, which were incompatible with each other in both hardware and software capabilities. To address this problem, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) released the 7 layers OSI reference model in 1984.173
This model is widely used for the description of processes occurring within a network. The network experts add the protocols, devices and programs to the individual layers of the OSI model that allows visualization of complex processes as a set of elements.
173. About OSI: http://www.rad.com/networks/1994/osi/osi.htm
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