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Table Of Contents  CertiGuide to A+ (A+ 4 Real)
 9  Chapter 13: Basic Networking Terminology

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Internet

Prototype of a modern Internet was created a network ARPANET under orders of the USA Department of Defense. At statement of a task the requirements of unification of university and research networks on low-speed modem channels (speed of 9600 bits per second were maximal specified speed) and preservation of serviceability of a network (routing of packets) at damage of a significant part of connections (as a result of military actions in territory of USA). Many American universities took part in realization of this project and at creation of the protocols were used paradigm RFC (Request for Comments). The incorporated organizational bases of the project were kept and now, though the Network already for a long time has left from under influence of the USA Department of Defense. 199

Internet does not represent any common network with general administration, and is in fact NETWORK of networks (that, in any measure it is visible from the term Internet), with the functions, distributed on all planets, of administration and routing. Each unit of a Network (except for the end users) provides realization of functions of administration and routing within the limits of the competence. Very good representation of a Network is usual web - from any point it is possible to reach in any other point, moving on threads of web, and in case of break of this or that thread it is possible to choose other way. Initially in a basis of Internet work, the principles of association of the diverse local and distributed networks in uniform space of an exchange of the data were incorporated based on common TCP/IP. For realization of the user tasks in TCP/IP are included protocols of copying of files (FTP), exchange of the mail messages (SMTP), access to hypertext information Web (HTTP) and many other protocols.200

The protocols and technologies, which have been developed for the ARPA project have appeared to be rather effective and are gradually distributed worldwide.

Boom in development Internet beguine in middle of the 90-th years when the technology WWW (World Wide Web) has received a wide circulation. From this moment in the development of a network participated not only professionals, but also a huge quantity of the laymen entered in. Undoubtedly, uninitiated occurrence in a network of numerous resources, developed and supported by organizations, which have rather weak representations about network technologies, has resulted in some "chaos". However, the Network requirements, incorporated in a basis, of the reliability and stability have allowed going through it without significant losses. Today in a network there are sets of "dust", but the occurrence in a Network of the new people which have been not burdened with superfluous reserves, at the end has served and continues to serve powerful stimulus of development of a Network and connected to it protocols and technologies.

Today Internet actually represents huge set of hosts and networks incorporated by common protocols TCP/IP, IP-address space and domain names. In a Network, there is no of the uniform centre of administration and "centralized" distribution of IP addresses and registration of domain names. Registration is carried out only, but even this "centralization" is rather conditional, as the functions of distribution of addresses and registration of domain names are transferred to the national and regional registrars, which, in turn resign their commission to other organizations in served region.

Thus, Internet is only large network created based on certain technologies and the protocols. Hence, further, considering WAN technologies, it is necessary to understand, that their application is identical both creation of corporate networks, and for maintenance of an output in Internet. The difference consists only that each corporate or any other private network is individual in a choice of technologies of connection and protocols. In an Internet network, everyone has access, including the unfair users, which with success are engaged in sabotage just owing it to anonymity and confidentiality that does not allow revealing such users. After study LAN, technologies and protocols, it is necessary to proceed to WAN consideration, which are based on the earlier investigated material and are most important from the point of view of prospects of networks development.


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199. To see documents how the Internet works go to http://www.ietf.org

200. To read about protocols go to http://www.protocols.com

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